The activity of GABA-T enzyme in the brain of rats in postnatal ontogenesis exposed to hypoxia during fetal period
Keywords:hypoxia, GABA-aminotransferase, cortex of the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, midbrain
In the present article, the effect of hypoxia in prenatal ontogenesis on the activity of the GABA-T enzyme in various brain structures of 17-day-old, 1- and 3-month-old rats in the postnatal period of development was investigated. In experiments, the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, and midbrain were studied. It was found that in control animals, a high activity level of the GABA-T enzyme was noted in the hypothalamus and cerebellum compared with other studied structures. Hypoxia suffered by rats during the fetal period caused significant changes in the activity of the GABA-T enzyme, mainly expressed in the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex. In 17-day-old and 1-month-old rats that underwent prenatal hypoxia, in comparison with 3-month-old animals, the enzymatic activity in the studied brain structures decreased to a greater extent. The activity of the GABA-T enzyme was partially restored in the brain structures of three-month-old animals subjected to hypoxia during the fetal period. A decrease in the activity of the GABA-T enzyme led to an increase in GABA. GABA is involved in compensatory-adaptive reactions. An increase in GABA content promoted the activation of inhibition processes in the brain, protecting nerve cells from death. As a result, GABA protected brain cells from destruction after hypoxic conditions during prenatal ontogenesis.
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